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We hear tons of advice saying that clichés should be avoided, so I thought I'd stroll over to the other side of the literary fence and look at when it's actually okay to use them.
Yes, you heard me--sometimes clichés can be used and not leave you feeling dirty afterwards. Hey would I lie to you?
If Granny May is the kind of gal to tell her young ins, "The early bird gets the worm," on the first wake up call but then screams, "Get down here or I'll tan your hide till it's black and blue!" on the third one, feel free to show it. Just make sure it works--this type of clichéd 'isms' can be done on purpose to show the character's tendency to fall back on these adages. It's part of who they are.
--If all your characters do this, then you've got problems.
--If your hip teen is telling her friends the early bird catches the worm and it isn't tongue-in-cheek, you've got problems.
To work, clichéd dialogue has to be done with intent and backed by strong characterization. The clichéd 'isms' should feel like natural dialogue, personal to the speaker.
Similar to dialogue, some characters may be predispositioned to 'think' in clichés, perhaps as a result of how/when they grew up, or to show prejudice or bigotry. If they see a street person, they might think of him as a 'no-good bum'. A drug dealer might be 'a waste of good air'. Maybe they observe that the caked-on make up a friend is wearing for ladies night looks like Tammy Faye Baker was her beautician.
To work, the cliché thoughts need to be a valid part of the characterization, not sloppy/lazy writing.
Your character can think in clichés if it is believable and effective for them to do so. You can't. Make sure your narration/description isn't cliché.
There is a loose belief that there are seven basic plots that all stories fall under (Overcoming the Monster, Rags to Riches, The Quest, Voyage and Return, Comedy, Tragedy, Rebirth). Does this mean that ultimately no matter what story we come up with, it's been done before? Some would say Yes. I say go ahead and write the story as uniquely as you can and don't worry about who's done what before you.
Keep perspective in check. If you've just finished reading Stephanie Meyer's Twilight books and are frothing to create your own vampire series based on a sect of vampires living at peace with society yet at odds with others of their kind and the heroine is new to town, clumsy and requires constant saving...well, do I really have to tell you to back away from the keyboard?
It's okay to write about a topic that's been covered before. Just make sure the story is your own.
Clichés can be justified when it's important to get something across to the reader quickly that is difficult to describe accurately. On rare occasions, the best choice may be a familiar wording that's instantly recognizable.
This is a last resort only. With some thought, you'll almost always find a fresh way to describe what you need to, and still make it clear to the reader.
An example where this might apply would be in conveying a type of technology, a complicated procedure or how something works to the reader. Sometimes a recognizable expression or comparison is more prudent than paragraphs of explanation when the pace of the story or reader understanding is at stake.
Don't be fooled, though. Just because something is hard to describe doesn't mean you should resort to clichés. One example is showing a shiver of fear. This occurs often in books as it's a body's natural reaction to this emotion. We've all read about shivers racing/tingling up the spine, down the spine, along the spine...writers use these images because the sensation is accurate, and creates immediate recognition with the reader.
Even something as overused as this can be freshened by changing the verb (charged, stampeded, trampled), losing the spine reference all together or by using an effective simile that mimics the sensation of something creeping over something else: a spider flashing across exposed skin, ants walking along a branch, etc.
If you do feel a cliché is justified, then use your best judgement on what type to use, and what you can get away with. There are levels of cliché, after all. You've got overused phrases like fluttering curtains, rosy cheeks, a flush of pleasure. Then there's the more annoying stupid jocks, the nosy mother-in-law or ugh, the geeky smart girl who, with the aid of a makeover, is suddenly super hot. Worse still are trysts between boss and secretary to spice up a book yet have no bearing on plot or the simple farm boy who is happy with his lot in life suddenly must go on a quest to save the world. Lets face it, some of these should scream, "Run away! Run away!" to the writer and be avoided at all costs.
ANGELA ACKERMAN is a CC member and Moderator, as well as a co-author of the bestselling writing guide, The Emotion Thesaurus: A Writer's Guide To Character Expression. When she isn't dreaming up cereal monsters or writing about Greek Mythology pychopaths, she blogs at The Bookshelf Muse, a description hub for writers and teachers.